About the CeltsCeltic Invasion of Rome

 

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 The Celts have earned the right to be called “The Founders of Europe”

A Fresh Look at an Ancient People.

Are you aware that the ancient Celts founded Europe?
Did you know that a megalithic stone in Knowth, Ireland circa 3200BC is in reality a 62 month lunar calendar?
Could the Knowth stone be linked to the Colginy Calendar found in France in circa 100BC?
This author thinks so.
Learn more about the ancient Celts by clicking the cells below.

bulletCeltic invasion of Rome took place in 390 BC (according to Livy) or in 387/386 BC (according to Polybius).
bulletBy circa 300 BC, the Celts ruled a swath of Europe from the North Sea to the Black Sea and beyond. Their territory included the British Isles, Belgium, France, Portugal, much of Spain, Southern Germany, Switzerland, Northern Italy, Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Northern Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia. Cities as far east as Krakow, Poland had a Celtic presence.
bulletHelvetia (Switzerland) was named after the Helvettii tribe, whereas Paris was named after the Parisii tribe. Belgium after the Belgae tribe, whose name means proud in Celtic, (Jiménez, Caesar against the Celts)
bulletMany, if not most, European cities were originally Celtic hill-forts. This includes such cities as London, Paris, Geneva and Budapest. (Nat’l Geographic, May 1977)
bulletWhen the Apostle Paul wrote his epistle to the Galatians, he was writing to the earliest Celtic converts to Christianity who settled in Turkey.
bulletUnlike Greek and Roman societies, Celtic females were accepted in leadership roles, as chieftains, druids and warriors.
bullet“The Celts seem to have been for hundreds of years, and in every matter, the educators of the Germanic peoples. (Henri Hubert, The History of the Celtic People)
bullet“The surviving material remains of Celtic culture show that society was endowed with technology and the craft skills unsurpassed in Europe until the eighteenth century ad.” (Cunliffe, The Celtic World)
bulletCeltic goldsmiths alloyed gold with 10% copper to improve the mechanical properties and to counteract the whitening effects of silver naturally occurring in gold. (Green, The Celtic World.)
bulletIron and iron alloys such as steel became dominant over bronze beginning in the eighth century bc. Armorers used a hot welding process that insured the blade was strong but retained a degree of flexibility. Steel was produced by controlled carburization.
bulletThe Celtic iron plow enabled former nomadic peoples to settle in communities.
bulletCeltic spoke wheels in the seventh century bc had iron tires secured with nails. By the second century bc, the Celts learned to mount a heated iron tire which would contract and secure itself to the wheel. This same engineering enabled the Conestoga wagons to cross the United States.
bulletThe invention of the shirt of mail of interlinked metal rings (chain-mail) belongs to Celtic armorers. (Varro)
bulletCelts were renowned horsemen. “The best of the Roman cavalry is recruited from among them.” (Strabo, Geography IV.4.2)
bulletCelts were often hired as mercenaries—In 369-368 BC some 2,000 Celtic soldiers were hired by Dionysius I of Syracuse and sent to Greece to help his ally Sparta against Thebes.
bulletWithout a written language, the Celts could not maintain a central government, which led to their downfall as a governing power.
   
Celtic Origins - under constructions The Druids Celtic Women - under construction
Celtic Calendars - under construction Celtic Warriors - under construction Celtic Art - under construction
Celtic Inovations - under construction


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by James Francis Smith
 
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